German Emissions Trading Authority

Selected climate protection projects

Projects have been chosen from the renewable energy and energy efficiency sectors according to the Federal Government’s energy and climate policy objectives. In addition, we also considered additional criteria to specifically promote projects that make a particularly large contribution to sustainable development and the fight against poverty.

The majority of the projects met the so-called Gold Standard criteria. This is a standard developed by a broad alliance of environmental protection organisations under which CDM projects can additionally be certified. It places particularly high requirements on ecological, economic and social project sustainability.

Small projects (so-called small-scale projects) were selected chiefly because they are commonly economically disadvantaged by their cost structure compared to large projects. The generally significant project development costs of small projects usually receive lower revenues from the smaller number of credits than large projects. At the same time it is only small projects that, in addition to emission reduction, strengthen local labour markets, thus making a direct contribution to fight against poverty. They strengthen local/regional labour markets through the creation of new jobs or sources of additional revenue, for example in production, sales and maintenance of efficient cooking stoves or the purchase of previously unused crop residues.

Overview of the individual projects

Electricity generation from landfill gas in Mexico

Source: First Climate Markets AG

Mexico operates an ambitious climate protection policy recognised internationally. Mexico's environmental priorities are highlighted in the national climate protection law and a national climate protection strategy: greenhouse gases should be reduced by 30 percent compared to "business as usual" by 2020 and by 50 percent by 2050 compared to 2000. As the first emerging country, Mexico filed its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to limit global warming in preparation for the international climate protection agreement in March 2015.

At over 120 million people, Mexico is one of the most populous countries of the world. The population, living mostly in cities, suffers particularly from air pollution, still unsolved household waste management issues and increasing problems in the drinking water supply.

The project to generate electricity from landfill gas is situated in the Monterrey metropolitan area. The landfill meets modern waste management principles so that overall environmental compatibility of waste disposal could be enhanced. Odour nuisance for local residents is significantly reduced by the extraction and combustion of landfill gases.

Approximately 50,000 MWh of electricity is fed into the local grid annually. This corresponds to a supply for about 28,000 households (as measured by the average household consumption). The installations of this landfill currently face the huge challenge of a major overhaul. The necessary investment however is not feasible from the proceeds of electricity production. Without additional revenue from carbon credit sales providing the necessary investment, it was up for closure: as a consequence, there is a threat that the project-related installations must be decommissioned and dismantled. In either case, the climate protection project would be stopped and landfill gas would be released untapped.

About the project

Project name
Monterrey I LFG to Energy Project
Project number
CDM 4598
Project type
Landfill gas for electricity generation
Cancelled for 2014
28,921

Electricity generation from wind power in Costa Rica

Costa Rica is one of the international pioneering countries in the area of climate protection: today the State uses its local, renewable energy resources and has set a goal to be greenhouse gas neutral by 2021. The country’s policy is long-term and aimed sustainably towards emission reduction. The energy sector is already virtually independent of fossil fuels. About 80 percent of electricity comes from hydroelectric power plants. However, supply from other renewable energy resources is sought, it being a major challenge to continue the supply in sparsely populated rural areas.

The project is a wind farm with a total capacity of 12.75 MW situated in Costa Rica’s San Isidro and San Cristobal districts. The 15 turbines are supposed to feed 42 GWh of electricity to the Costa Rica national grid annually. This corresponds to a supply of over 20,000 households (as measured by the average household consumption). Thus, not only is the national grid stabilised, but the local availability of electricity in this rural area of Costa Rica is also substantially improved.

The project is run by a local energy cooperative (members are owners, operators and customers), resulting in local/regional added value, and the improving network stability contributes to the economic development of the rural region. Furthermore, the project activity includes the expansion of the local infrastructure and supports local educational programmes and information about sustainable energy consumption, climate change and biodiversity.

About the project

Project name

Los Santos Windpower Project

Project number
CDM 6275
Project type
Wind power for electricity generation
Specifics
partly Gold Standard
Cancelled for 2014
19,117

Efficient cook-stoves in Nigeria

Source: atmosfair gGmbH

With its 186 million inhabitants, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. It has the largest interconnected domestic market and has the largest economy on the continent. Furthermore, the country is rich in natural resources and is one of the most important petroleum producers worldwide. Despite the wealth of resources, the Nigerian government has not been able to use it for the economic and social development of the country. More than half of the population still lives in poverty.

Nigeria is also the country with the highest deforestation rate worldwide and it has lost nearly half of its forest area between 1990 and 2010. One of the main causes of deforestation is the extraction of firewood. Even though Nigeria does not belong to the Least Developed Countries (LDC) (LDC), up to 99 percent of the families still use wood to cook in the north of the country and about 75 percent of families are affected in the national scale. A family of seven people consumes about five tonnes of wood per year. This enormous consumption of firewood has already resulted in an almost total deforestation in the poor north of the country. Deserts also continue to spread. Firewood is scarce in Northern Nigeria and must be transported by lorries and trains from the remaining forests in the south of the country. This is reflected in the price of wood and causes high transport emissions.

The ‘Efficient Cook-stoves’ project tries to counteract deforestation. In particular it relieves the poorest households in Nigeria because cook-stoves need about 80 percent less wood for cooking. The stoves burn the wood cleaner so that women and children are no longer exposed to constant smoke and soot. In addition to improved health situation, common cooking habits are also maintained since the stoves work day and night.

About the project

Project name
Improved Cook-stoves for Nigeria Programme of Activities (PoA)
Project number
CDM PoA 5067
Project type
Efficient cook-stoves
Specifics
PoA, Gold Standard
Cancelled for 2015
5,800

Drinking water project and efficient cookers in Rwanda

Source: First Climate Markets AG

Rwanda is one of the smallest and densest populated countries in Africa. Despite progress in promoting women, basic education and food security, the country remains one of the poorest countries in the world. Rwanda ranked 159 out of 188 in 2016 in the Human Development Index (HDI) of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and it falls into the “countries with a low level of development“ category.

For many years people have been fleeing from Burundi and the eastern Congo to Rwanda in addition to the already high population growth in the country, which increases the pressure on natural resources. The high demand for wood and coal for cooking means that many of the original mountain forests have already been burnt or cut down. The Rwandan government is committed to the protection of the remaining forests and prioritises the development of alternative, environmentally friendly forms of energy.

In Rwanda, respiratory and diarrheal diseases continue to be the most common causes of death. Together, they account for about a quarter of all childhood deaths.

The project aims to reduce preventable diseases and sustainably reduce child mortality. In cooperation with the Rwandan Ministry of the Environment, 600,000 modern water filters and efficient cooking systems are being distributed to poor families through the DelAgua project. Many people prepare their meals over an open fire in the traditional way. The resulting high fume emissions stress the climate and the health of people considerably. The new cookers ensure a much more efficient combustion process. They have efficient heat insulation, optimised heat transfer to the cooking pot and consume significantly less fuel than traditional fireplaces during operation. Furthermore, the cookers reduce harmful fumes, which are accompanied by the development of numerous respiratory tract diseases, the cardiovascular system and the eyes.

In addition, the project distributes water filters. These filters clean the water without heat, electricity or chemicals. This eliminates the usual requirement for boiling of water. Together with the efficient cookers, a large amount of firewood or charcoal is saved. As a result, CO2 emissions and deforestation are reduced. Further positive effects on the environment are the reduction of soil erosion, the conservation of water resources and the preservation of habitats for animals and plants.

About the project

Project name
DelAgua Public Health Programme in Eastern Africa
Project number
CDM PoA 9626
Project type
Drinking water and efficient cookers
Specifics
PoA, LDC, Gold Standard
Cancelled for 2015
24,281

Efficient cook-stoves in Rwanda

Source: atmosfair gGmbH

Rwanda is one of the smallest and densest populated countries in Africa. Despite progress in promoting women, basic education and food security, the country remains one of the poorest countries in the world. In the Human Development Index (HDI) of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Rwanda ranked 159 out of 188 in 2016 and it falls into the “countries with a low level of development“ category.

For many years people have been fleeing from Burundi and the eastern Congo to Rwanda. In addition to the already high population growth in the country, the pressure on natural resources is increasing. The high demand for wood and coal for cooking means that many of the original mountain forests have already been burnt or cut down. The Rwandan government is committed to the protection of the remaining forests and prioritises the development of alternative, environmentally friendly forms of energy. In Rwanda, respiratory and diarrheal diseases continue to be one of the most common causes of death. Together, they account for about a quarter of all childhood deaths.

Efficient stoves reduce the wood requirement for cooking by up to 80 percent. Rwanda's households are saving considerably because the use of efficient stoves means they are independent of rising charcoal prices and increased transport and production costs. The savings allow households to cover other financial expense, and at the same time, diminishing potential conflicts because wood resources between refugees and neighbouring municipalities are minimised. The UN Refugee Aid Organisation (UNHCR) can use the fund savings for other activities.

The prefabricated stove units developed in Germany are mainly installed by local women in Rwanda. They are trained and paid for the assembly of the stoves.

Other local project partners are:

  • Safer Rwanda, an independent non-profit NGO active in various peace and environmental projects.
  • Rwanda Women Network, a humanitarian NGO that is committed to promoting and improving the social and economic well-being of women in Rwanda.

About the project

Project name
Improved Cook-stoves for Rwanda
Project number
CDM PoA 6207
Project type
Efficient cook-stoves
Specifics
PoA, LDC, Gold Standard
Cancelled for 2015
40,000

Drinking water project in Uganda

Source: south pole group

Uganda is a very fertile country with a lot of natural resources. The population mainly works in agriculture while the main export products are coffee, tea and fish. Although economic progress has been made in the country – Uganda currently has an economic growth rate of almost 5 percent – it still ranks among the least developed countries in the world. Uganda has serious problems with the fight against poverty. In 2016 the Human Development Index (HDI) of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) ranked Uganda in 163rd place of 188. So Uganda falls into the "countries with a low level of development" category.

In addition, climate change brings enormous challenges: increasing weather extremes, floods, droughts and water deficits are already visible consequences. It affects not only agriculture and food security, but also the health of the entire population. According to World Health Organisation (WHO), approximately 18,500 people, especially children, died of gastrointestinal infections (diarrhoeal disease) in Uganda alone in 2012. These infections are among the most frequent causes of death and are caused by poor water quality, lack of sanitation and insufficient hygiene.

Usually, water is boiled to destroy viruses and bacteria and make it drinkable. The project in East Uganda prepares drinking water safe consumption by using a chlorine solution. Water is treated with chlorine directly at the supply point. The result is a local chlorine distribution system. The chlorine distributors are equipped with a valve to provide the correct amount of chlorine for the residents’ water containers. This technology makes boiling water before consumption unnecessary. CO2 emissions are reduced as forest areas no longer have to be cleared. Furthermore time-consuming and financially expensive procurement of firewood and charcoal becomes obsolete. Also families have more time and money to pursue other basic needs. The use of chlorine solutions not only helps to avoid gastrointestinal infections, it also reduces eye and respiratory diseases caused by the smoke from open cooking places.

Extensive health and hygiene training is offered throughout the project. Local residents are elected as "ambassadors" for local distributors. They advertise their use, report technical problems and regularly supply the distributor with new chlorine. The local NGO Evidence Action also constantly monitors the functionality of all the distributors.

About the project

Project name
International Water Purification Programme
Project number
CDM PoA 5962
Project type
Drinking water
Specifics
PoA, Gold Standard
Cancelled for 2015
12,525

Efficient cook-stoves in Zambia

Source: First Climate Markets AG

Zambia is one of the most heavily forested countries in Africa. About 67 percent (~ 49,468,000 ha) of Zambia's land surface is covered by forests. The Zambian forests, however, are heavily threatened by unregulated commercial deforestation: between 250,000 and 300,000 hectares of forest are lost through clearing every year. However, the population also contributes to deforestation. The use of charcoal and wood for cooking and heating is widespread in Zambia and is often the only source of energy. Meanwhile, Zambia is among the countries with the highest deforestation rate in Africa and the world.

Burning is inefficient in traditional usage. Large quantities of wood and charcoal are not completely converted into heat energy. This is associated with further problems: ash and harmful carbon monoxide gas are produced during combustion. They lead to respiratory, heart, circulatory and eye diseases such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. Air pollution in homes is a serious threat because many houses do not have adequate ventilation. In addition, the physically demanding and time-consuming collection of firewood is typically performed by women.

Project activities promote the distribution and installation of energy-efficient cook-stoves in Zambia due to effective heat transfer and efficient combustion of wood compared to traditional fireplaces. An average family can save around 300 kilograms of charcoal equivalent to over 100 US dollars using the new cook-stoves. According to the World Bank, this corresponds to approximately one-tenth of the average annual income. In addition, the efficient cook-stoves reduce the demand for wood or charcoal and reduce pressure on forest resources in Zambia, which counteracts problems such as soil erosion, destruction of natural habitats and the loss of biodiversity.

About the project

Project name
Improved cook-stoves Programme for Zambia
Project number
CDM PoA 8060
Project type
Efficient cook-stoves
Specifics
PoA, LDC
Cancelled for 2015
25,994

Renewable energy in South Africa

Source: First Climate Markets AG

For some years, South Africa has had a leading political and economic role on the African continent. The country has a highly developed industry, large raw material reserves, a good infrastructure, a very good science culture, an independent, reliable legal system and a high degree of freedom of the press. Nevertheless, South Africa is a country with high unemployment, high poverty and social inequality. South Africa has been in an energy crisis for years. Currently, its growing energy demand is mainly covered by domestic coal. The country is thus one of the world's largest producers of greenhouse gases (measured in terms of CO2 emissions from energy use in millions of tonnes).

The South African government is therefore planning to expand its wind and solar power and to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 42 percent by 2025. For this ambitious climate protection target, South Africa needs help from the international community. Despite various reforms in the South African energy policy of recent years, decentralised generation facilities for the production of renewable energies are not widely used in the country. Although environmental conditions are very favourable for the use of wind or solar power, the independent generation of electricity in private small-scale plants makes up only a fraction of total electricity generation. Measured by the installed generation capacity in South Africa, private renewable energy plants under 15 MW have a share of only around two percent. Therefore, there is a great potential in this area. High capital requirement and often unfavourable financing conditions make it very difficult for private operators in South Africa to invest in the relevant technology and help renewable energies to make a breakthrough.

This is where the South Africa Renewable Energy Programme (SA-REP) applies. The project is committed to the use of wind, solar and hydroelectric power in South Africa and supports the operators of decentralised energy generation plants. The prerequisite for the support is that the installed generation capacity does not exceed 15 MW and that the installations feed the generated electricity into the transmission grid. Only the installation of plants in places that have not yet been used for generating electricity using renewable energy is supported. The construction and operation of the facilities creates new jobs for the local population all over the country. The project improves regional and national energy supply and reduces dependency on fossil fuels. In addition, the project will replace electricity from conventional power plants and avoid emissions of nitrogen, soot and sulphur dioxide. The project contributes to the breakthrough of technologies for generating energy from renewable sources and makes a major contribution to the South African energy transition.

About the project

Project name
South Africa Renewable Energy Programme (SA-REP)
Project number
CDM PoA 7570
Project type
Renewable energy
Specifics
PoA
Cancelled for 2015
33,030

Electricity generation from crop residues in India

Source: atmosfair gGmbH

The project is located in the district of Tonk in the Indian state of Rajasthan, geographically the largest state of the subcontinent and one of India's poorest regions. Much of the population lives from agriculture and animal husbandry. Smallholders produce little more than enough to survive.

In the prevailing dry climate mustard is the most important agricultural plant. Mustard shells and stems, left over from mustard oil production, have so far not been used and therefore burned. The 8 MW biomass power plant built uses crop residues to generate electricity. Thousands of small farmers have been supplying their crop residues to the power plant since 2007 – and selling the previously worthless waste to the plant operator. Also the farmers, who often have no means of transport, are not obliged to transport the fuel themselves to the power plants over long distances as fuel collection centres have been established at a radius of 50 km around the power plant. There the bags of mustard residues are weighed, the farmers receive immediate payment and the fuel is then transported to the power plant. A large store ensures that a sufficient amount of material is available all year to produce electricity, even out of season.

The fuel is burned by direct combustion and thus generates hot water vapour in a boiler. The steam drives the turbines and generators to produce electricity which is fed into the regional grid. Although mustard plant crop residues are the prime source of energy (energy production by direct combustion), other available crop residues can also be used as biomass to generate electricity using the same technology.

About the project

Project name

Electricity generation from mustard crop residues: Tonk, India

Project number
CDM 1774
Project type
Biomass for electricity generation
Specifics
Gold Standard
Cancelled for 2014
40,000

Household biogas in Nepal

Nepal is among the poorest countries in the world. In particular, the rural regions are forecast to suffer most from the consequences of climate change because the majority of the population mostly lives and works in agriculture.

At 85 percent, biomass is still Nepal’s most widely used primary energy source. In rural areas more than 80 percent of people use firewood for cooking which leads to significant health risks especially for women and children through inhalation of smoke. Furthermore, the high deforestation rates through the use of wood in households are responsible for the increasing decline of forests. Biogas is therefore an alternative to the use of wood from unsustainable forestry.

The Nepal Biogas Support Program-PoA supports the development and use of biogas plants in rural households across Nepal. Biogas replaces the usual firewood for cooking and therefore reduces carbon dioxide emissions; on the other hand, it is a smoke-free, affordable and decentralised energy source, particularly beneficial for poorer households in the country. Small subterranean biogas plants (two to eight cubic metres) are used to convert cow dung, other agricultural waste and faeces by anaerobic fermentation into biogas that can be used for cooking. Two or three cattle supply a sufficient amount of manure to operate a small plant.

A biogas plant saves an average of three tonnes of CO2 or about 2000 kg of firewood per year compared to the use of an open three-stone-fire.

About the project

Project name

Nepal Biogas Support Programme

Project number
CDM PoA 9572
Project type
Household biogas
Specifics
PoA, LDC, Gold Standard
Cancelled for 2014
40,000
Cancelled for 2015
22,000

Household biogas in China

Source: UPM Umwelt-Projekt-Management GmbH

Rural areas of Sichuan province are among the poorest in China. In particular, according to the forecasts the rural areas will be the most affected from the consequences of climate change. In Sichuan Province, there are 36 districts that have been officially designated as "national poverty counties", declared in order to seek financial help from the Chinese government.

The project makes a significant contribution to sustainable development of Sichuan and provides high socio-economic and environmental benefits by improving the quality of life. Up to one million low-income smallholder households will be provided with climate-friendly biogas fermenters and practical biogas burners. Instead of widespread disposal of animal faeces in open slurry pits, these biogas plants treat the excrement anaerobically in closed tanks and the resulting methane provides a clean biogas for cooking for the farms. Thus the usually extremely smoky and harmful burning of coal and firewood in outdated ovens becomes redundant. Women and children are especially affected by a lot of smoke when cooking in households.

Through the use of methane emissions from animal husbandry and by replacing coal and firewood with biogas, the project covers two major emission sources in rural areas, thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, exposure to smoke will be reduced, sanitary conditions improved and the production of organic fertilisers promoted.

This project, certified by the Gold Standard, is one of the world's biggest and most ambitious CDM climate protection programmes.

About the project

Project name
Sichuan Rural Poor-Household Biogas Development Programme
Project number
CDM PoA 2898
Project type
Household biogas
Specifics
PoA, Gold Standard
Cancelled for 2014
10,000
Cancelled for 2015
40,000

An Overview about the cancelled CERs

By voluntary offsetting of CERs from the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Emissions from the Federal Government's business trips are offset by climate protection projects in emerging and developing countries.

The table shows the amount of CERs, which have been cancelled on behalf of the Federal Government for Emissions caused by its employees’ business trips of the respective year.

CERs for each year
Year of offsettingAmount of CERs Status
2014138,038 Cancelled
2015203,630Cancellation is imminent
2016235,240 CERs will soon be purchased

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